State News

NEW YORK
The U.S. Small Business Administration announced today that it will open Disaster Loan Outreach Centers (DLOC) in West Seneca on Wednesday, Jan. 7, 2015, and in Attica on Wednesday, Jan. 14, 2015. The location of the DLOCs will make it convenient for those affected by the severe winter storm that occurred Nov. 19 – 26, 2014 to apply for disaster loan assistance.

The declaration covers Erie County and the adjacent counties of Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Genesee, Niagara, and Wyoming in New York.

CALIFORNIA

Low-interest federal disaster loans are available to California residents and business owners affected by the severe storms and flooding that occurred December 11‑12, 2014, U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Administrator Maria Contreras-Sweet announced today. SBA acted under its own authority to declare a disaster in response to a request SBA received from Gov. Edmund G. Brown Jr.’s designated representative, Mark S. Ghilarducci, Director of the Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, on December 24.

The disaster declaration makes SBA assistance available in San Mateo County and in the neighboring counties of Alameda, San Francisco, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz.

“Low-interest federal disaster loans are available to homeowners, renters, businesses of all sizes and private nonprofit organizations whose property was damaged or destroyed by this disaster,” said SBA’s San Francisco District Director Mark Quinn. “Beginning Monday, January 5, SBA representatives will be on hand at the following Disaster Loan Outreach Center to answer questions about SBA’s disaster loan program, explain the application process and help each individual complete their application,” Quinn continued.

ARKANSAS

Small, nonfarm businesses in the Arkansas counties of Crittenden, Cross, Lee, Monroe, Saint Francis and Woodruff are now eligible to apply for low‑interest federal disaster loans from the U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA). These loans offset economic losses because of reduced revenues caused by the hail in Saint Francis County that occurred October 2, 2014, announced Tanya N. Garfield, Director of SBA’s Disaster Field Operations Center ‑ West.

IOWA & NEBRASKA

Small, nonfarm businesses in five Iowa counties and neighboring counties in Nebraska are now eligible to apply for low‑interest federal disaster loans from the U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA). These loans offset economic losses because of reduced revenues caused by the freeze in the following primary county that occurred on May 16, 2014, announced Tanya N. Garfield, Director of SBA’s Disaster Field Operations Center - West.

Primary Iowa County: Harrison;
Neighboring Iowa counties: Crawford, Monona, Pottawattamie and Shelby;
Neighboring Nebraska counties: Burt and Washington.

“SBA eligibility covers both the economic impacts on businesses dependent on farmers and ranchers that have suffered agricultural production losses caused by the disaster and businesses directly impacted by the disaster,” Garfield said.

Small, nonfarm businesses, small agricultural cooperatives, small businesses engaged in aquaculture and most private nonprofit organizations of any size may qualify for Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDLs) of up to $2 million to help meet financial obligations and operating expenses which could have been met had the disaster not occurred.

“Eligibility for these loans is based on the financial impact of the disaster only and not on any actual property damage. These loans have an interest rate of 4 percent for businesses and 2.625 percent for private nonprofit organizations, a maximum term of 30 years, and are available to small businesses and most private nonprofits without the financial ability to offset the adverse impact without hardship,” Garfield said.

By law, SBA makes EIDLs available when the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture designates an agricultural disaster. Secretary Tom Vilsack declared this disaster on December 24, 2014.

Businesses primarily engaged in farming or ranching are not eligible for SBA disaster assistance. Agricultural enterprises should contact the Farm Services Agency (FSA) about the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) assistance made available by the Secretary’s declaration.

Applicants may apply online using the Electronic Loan Application (ELA) via SBA’s secure Web site at https://disasterloan.sba.gov/ela.

 

 

The City of Fremont (City) is announcing a Notice of Funding Availability
(NOFA) for the creation of affordable rental housing in Fremont.

Approximately $8.0 million in funding is available to support predevelopment, acquisition and construction or rehabilitation of affordable housing.  The funding is intended to fill the financing gap between a project’s total development cost and other available financing sources.

The funding available through this NOFA is for capital costs only; no financing is available to fund operating subsidies or supportive services. It should be noted that if additional housing funds become available to the City during the NOFA evaluation process, the amount awarded through this NOFA may also increase.
Qualified affordable housing developers that can meet the NOFA requirements
and demonstrate their ability to finance, design, build/rehabilitate and manage affordable housing are encouraged to submit proposals. All proposals must be received by February 13, 2015.  Applications submitted after the deadline will not be considered. Funding will be awarded by the City on a competitive basis to the project or projects that provide the best opportunity to address the City’s affordable housing needs.

The City reserves the right to request that Applicants submit additional information as may be requested by staff to clarify submitted information. Also, the City reserves the right to reject any and all proposals for any reason, and at its sole discretion.

Click here for more information.

 

WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) today announced the second round of housing assistance to help 1,984 homeless veterans find permanent supportive housing.  The rental assistance announced today is provided through the HUD-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Program which combines rental assistance from HUD with case management and clinical services provided by VA.  Last October, the two agencies awarded $62 million in HUD-VASH vouchers to assist more than 9,000 homeless veterans.

With HUD approaching its 50th anniversary next year, Secretary Julián Castro is focused on advancing policies that create opportunities for all Americans, including the broader Administration goal of ending homelessness among veterans.

“It is unacceptable that after their service and sacrifice, too many of our veterans find themselves living on our streets and in our shelters,” said SecretaryCastro.  “We’ve made significant progress reducing homelessness among veterans by a third in just four years, and these vouchers will continue to help communities build on these gains, providing targeted assistance to those in need to ensure that every veteran has a home.”

Welcoming the progress made with HUD and local partners under the leadership of President Obama, VA Secretary Robert McDonald added, “As long as there remains a single veteran living on our streets, there is more work to be done. HUD-VASH vouchers are a vital tool in our efforts to reduce veteran homelessness.”

“Through the HUD-VASH program, communities are making historic progress toward ending homelessness by connecting veterans who have the most intensive service needs to the foundation of a home with supportive services,” said Laura Green Zeilinger, Executive Director of the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness.  “The grant awards announced today add crucial resources to this effort, helping to deliver on the promise that every veteran who has served America has a home in America.”

HUD-VASH is an important part of the Obama Administration’s efforts to provide critical housing and services to veterans experiencing homelessness that also includes HUD’s Continuum of Care program as well as VA’s Supportive Services for Veteran Families (SSVF).

Since 2008 more than 68,000 vouchers have been awarded and over 80,000 homeless veterans have been served through the HUD-VASH program.  Rental assistance and support services provided through HUD-VASH are a critical resource for local communities in ending homelessness among our nation’s Veterans.

Additionally, Opening Doors: Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness serves as a roadmap for how the federal government will work with state and local communities to confront the root causes of homelessness, especially among former servicemen and women. As evidence of that commitment, President Obama has asked for an additional $75 million for HUD-VASH vouchers to serve veterans experiencing homelessness in his fiscal year 2015 budget request to Congress.

In the HUD-VASH program, VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) assess veterans experiencing homelessness before referring them to local housing agencies for these vouchers. Decisions are based on a variety of factors, most importantly the duration of homelessness and the need for longer term, more intensive support in obtaining and maintaining permanent housing.  The HUD-VASH program includes both the rental assistance the voucher provides and the comprehensive case management that VAMC staff offers.

Veterans participating in the HUD-VASH program rent privately owned housing and generally contribute no more than 30 percent of their income toward rent.  VA offers eligible homeless veterans clinical and supportive services through its medical centers across the U.S., Guam and Puerto Rico.

 

 

SACRAMENTO, CA-Low-interest federal disaster loans are now available to certain private, nonprofit organizations (PNPs) in California, following President Obama’s federal disaster declaration for Public Assistance as a result of an earthquake during the period of August 24 – September 7, 2014, announced Maria Contreras-Sweet, Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). PNPs that provide essential services of a governmental nature are eligible for assistance.

SBA disaster assistance is now available in the counties of Napa and Solano.

“PNP organizations should contact Peter Crase with the California Emergency Management Agency at (916) 845-8203 to obtain information about applicant briefings,” said Tanya N. Garfield, Director of SBA’s Disaster Field Operations Center-West.  “At the briefings, PNP representatives will need to provide information about their organization,” continued Garfield.  FEMA will use that information to determine if the PNP provides an “essential governmental service” and is a “critical facility” as defined by law.  If so, FEMA may provide the PNP with a Public Assistance grant for their eligible costs.  If not, FEMA may refer the PNP to SBA for disaster loan assistance.

SBA may lend PNPs up to $2 million to repair or replace damaged or destroyed real estate, machinery and equipment, inventory, and other business assets.  SBA can also lend additional funds to help with the cost of making improvements that protect, prevent or minimize the same type of disaster damage from occurring in the future.

For certain private, nonprofit organizations of any size, SBA offers Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDLs) to help meet working capital needs caused by the disaster.  EIDLs may be used to pay fixed debts, payroll, accounts payable and other bills that cannot be paid because of the disaster’s impact.  EIDL assistance is available regardless of whether the nonprofit suffered any property damage.

The interest rate is 2.625% with terms up to 30 years.  The filing deadline to return applications for property damage is November 10, 2014.  The deadline to return economic injury applications is June 11, 2015.

WASHINGTON, DC- The District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development announces the release of six solicitations for offers (SFOs) for 27 blighted properties and vacant lots throughout the nation’s capital. Through the SFO process, DHCD is seeking public offers to build development projects that promote vibrant, walkable, mixed use and income neighborhoods. The 27 District owned properties and lots are located in Wards 1, 5, 7 and 8. They consist of four buildings and 23 vacant lots. The ward-by-ward breakdown includes:

Ward 1 One vacant lot
Ward 5 One building and seven vacant lots
Ward 7 14 vacant lots
Ward 8 Three buildings and one vacant lot

The SFO application materials became available on Friday, July 11, 2014 on the DHCD website and also at the DHCD Housing Resource Center, located at 1800 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20020 in CD format. Two Pre-Bid meeting will be held on August 6, 2014 (SFOs 1-3) and August 20, 2014 (SFOs 4-6). The exact location will be announced on the DHCD website. The deadline for submitting proposal applications is 4 p.m. EST on Friday, October 10, 2014 (SFOs 1-3) and October 24, 2014 (SFOs 4-6).

SACRAMENTO, Calif. – Low-interest federal disaster loans are now available to certain private, nonprofit organizations (PNPs) in Washington, following President Obama’s federal disaster declaration for Public Assistance (PA) as a result of the wildfires that occurred July 9 – August 5, 2014, announced Maria Contreras-Sweet, Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). PNPs that provide essential services of a governmental nature are eligible for assistance.

SBA disaster assistance is now available in the county of Okanogan and the Confederated Tribes of Colville Reservation.

“PNP organizations should contact Gary Urbas with the Washington State Public Assistance program at (253) 512-7402 to obtain information about local briefings.  At the briefings, PNP representatives will need to provide information about their organization,” said Tanya N. Garfield, Director of SBA’s Disaster Field Operations Center-West.  FEMA will use that information to determine if the PNP provides an “essential governmental service” and is a “critical facility” as defined by law.  If so, FEMA may provide the PNP with a Public Assistance grant for their eligible costs.  If not, FEMA may refer the PNP to SBA for disaster loan assistance.

SBA may lend PNPs up to $2 million to repair or replace damaged or destroyed real estate, machinery and equipment, inventory, and other business assets.  SBA can also lend additional funds to help with the cost of making improvements that protect, prevent or minimize the same type of disaster damage from occurring in the future.

For certain private, nonprofit organizations of any size, SBA offers Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDLs) to help meet working capital needs caused by the disaster.  EIDLs may be used to pay fixed debts, payroll, accounts payable and other bills that cannot be paid because of the disaster’s impact.  EIDL assistance is available regardless of whether the nonprofit suffered any property damage.

The interest rate is 2.625 percent with terms up to 30 years.  The filing deadline to return applications for property damage is October 10, 2014.  The deadline to return economic injury applications is May 11, 2015.

Applicants may apply online using the Electronic Loan Application (ELA) via SBA’s secure Web site at https://disasterloan.sba.gov/ela.

Disaster loan information and application forms are also available from SBA’s Customer Service Center by calling (800) 659-2955 or e-mailing disastercustomerservice@sba.gov(link sends e-mail).  Individuals who are deaf or hard‑of‑hearing may call (800) 877-8339.  For more information about SBA’s disaster assistance programs, visit http://www.sba.gov/disaster.

SBA Field Operations Center - West, P.O. Box 419004, Sacramento, CA 95841

Providence, RI--Governor Lincoln D. Chafee joined Rhode Island Housing and their state lending and real estate partners to officially launch the agency’s new FirstHomes Tax Credit program, a tax credit savings program offered through Rhode Island Housing and their Lender Partners specifically designed to help first-time homebuyers save up to $2,000 per
year.
The FirstHomes Tax Credit program is not a loan.  It is a tax credit – claimed by borrowers on their federal tax return annually.  The credit is equal to 20% of a borrower’s total mortgage interest amount paid – saving eligible homebuyers as much as $2,000 per year.  This credit can be
claimed each year for the life of the mortgage, as long as the borrower continues to live in the home. The tax credit is available to new homebuyers and those purchasing homes in select areas of the state only.
The FirstHomes Tax Credit Program, also known as a “Mortgage Credit Certificate” was authorized by Congress in the 1984 Tax Reform Act as a means of providing housing assistance to families based on income and eligibility guidelines.  As the state’s housing finance agency, Rhode Island Housing is an Issuer of Mortgage Credit Certificates.  However, because these tax credits reduce the state’s ability to issue tax exempt revenue bonds, it has not been used for many years.
“The savings derived from Rhode Island Housing’s new tax credit program will pave the way for more Rhode Islanders to buy a home,” Governor Lincoln D. Chafee said. “I commend Rhode Island Housing for joining with its lending partners and implementing a plan that invests in our cities and towns and will have an economic impact throughout the state.”

The announcement could not come at a better time for homebuyers, as Rhode Island is currently in the midst of a robust summer homebuying market.

“The launch of our FirstHomes Tax Credit program comes at a very exciting time for us,” said Richard Godfrey, Executive Director of  Rhode Island Housing.  “With the support of our Lender Partners, our loan production for the first six months of 2014 is up 50% over 2013.  This is a result of our lower cost and easier to process mortgages, expanded partnerships with lenders and dedication to helping homebuyers make smart purchasing decisions.  When we saw the opportunity to save first-time homebuyers
up to an additional $2,000 per year, we were thrilled to offer the program to our borrowers directly and through our Lender Partners.  We want all of our state’s first-time homebuyers to be aware of and have access to this incredible money saving opportunity.  If we can bring more first time buyers into the market it will stimulate sales all across the market.”

A buyer is eligible for the credit if they are a first-time homebuyer borrowing through Rhode Island Housing or a FirstHomes Tax Credit Approved Lender.  Current Approved Lenders include:

  • Anchor Financial Mortgage, Inc.
  • Bank of America
  • Coastway Community Bank
  • Eastern Bank
  • Fairway Independent Mortgage Corporation
  • Guaranteed Rate, Inc.
  • Homestar Mortgage, Inc.
  • Home Loan Investment Bank, FSB
  • Maverick Funding Corporation
  • Mortgage Master
  • NE Moves Mortgage, LLC
  • Primary Residential Mortgage, Inc.
  • Province Mortgage Associates, Inc.
  • Residential Mortgage Services, Inc.
  • Savings Institute Bank & Trust
  • Seacoast Mortgage Corporation
  • Semper Home Loans, Inc.
  • Shamrock Financial Corporation
  • Wave Federal Credit Union.

Local lenders can join the Approved Lender list by meeting certain qualification requirements and entering into a participation agreement with Rhode Island Housing.
“The FirstHomes Tax Credit is an incredible added-value option for our clients,” said Stephen Tetzner, Vice President, Homestar Mortgage. “Having this program available to our team is a great asset for our loan officers and the clients we serve. We thank Rhode Island Housing for making this opportunity possible, and we look forward to passing the FirstHomes Tax Credit savings on to our customers.”
In addition to borrowing through an Approved Lender, homebuyers must also meet other criteria in order to be eligible for the credit. A borrower’s household income must fall within the following ranges: less than $86,280 for a 1-2 person household; less than $100,660 for a 3 or more person household.  The maximum home purchase price is $417,000. The tax credit is also available to non first-time homebuyers purchasing homes in select areas of Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls and Woonsocket.
“The majority of our customers, and many of our Approved Lenders’ customers, will meet the eligibility criteria set for this program,” said Peter Walsh, Director of Homeownership and Customer Service for Rhode Island Housing.  “This is not a coincidence; the FirstHomes Tax Credit was specifically designed to respond to the needs of our state’s first-time homebuyers.  We are excited to offer this program and encourage any first-time homebuyer to visit our website or call our Loan Center for more information about this program.”

Rhode Island Housing can provide FirstHomes Tax Credits for over $93 million of mortgages on a first-come, first-serve basis among lenders and prospective borrowers.

SACRAMENTO, CA – The Small Business Administration announced Small, non-farm businesses in the Idaho counties of Bonneville, Fremont, Jefferson, Madison and Teton are now eligible to apply for low-interest federal disaster loans from the U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA).  “These loans offset economic losses because of reduced revenues caused by the drought that began on May 15, 2014, in Madison County,” announced Tanya N. Garfield, Director of SBA’s Disaster Field Operations Center-West.

“SBA eligibility covers both the economic impacts on businesses dependent on farmers and ranchers that have suffered agricultural production losses caused by the disaster and businesses directly impacted by the disaster,” Garfield said.

Small, non-farm businesses, small agricultural cooperatives, small businesses engaged in aquaculture and most private, nonprofit organizations of any size may qualify for Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDLs) of up to $2 million to help meet financial obligations and operating expenses which could have been met had the disaster not occurred.

“Eligibility for these loans is based on the financial impact of the disaster only and not on any actual property damage.  These loans have an interest rate of 4% for businesses and 2.625% for private, nonprofit organizations, a maximum term of 30 years, and are available to small businesses and most private, nonprofits without the financial ability to offset the adverse impact without hardship,” Garfield said.

By law, SBA makes EIDLs available when the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture designates an agricultural disaster.  Secretary Tom Vilsack declared this disaster on July 16, 2014.

Businesses primarily engaged in farming or ranching are not eligible for SBA disaster assistance.  Agricultural enterprises should contact the Farm Services Agency (FSA) about the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) assistance made available by the Secretary’s declaration.  However, in drought disasters nurseries are eligible for SBA disaster assistance.

Applicants may apply online using the Electronic Loan Application (ELA) via SBA’s secure Web site at https://disasterloan.sba.gov/ela.

DENVER, CO - U.S. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Secretary Shaun Donovan today announced the State of Colorado will receive an additional $58.2 million to help communities recover from last September's severe storms that produced devastating floods and mudslides. The recovery funds are provided through HUD's Community Development Block Grant - Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) Program to support long-term disaster recovery efforts in areas with the greatest extent of 'unmet need', primarily in Boulder, Weld and Larimer Counties.

HUD previously allocated $262.1 million to assist recovery efforts in Colorado. The funds announced today bring HUD’s total CDBG-DR investment to $320 million.

Grantee

Grant Announced Today

Previous Grants

Total

Colorado

$58,246,000

$262,100,000

$320,346,000

"After visiting Lyons and Evans last year, I promised HUD would remain committed to making sure the state has the resources they need to recover from unprecedented flooding and mudslides,” said Donovan. "This additional money will fund a local vision to rebuild homes and businesses, repair badly damaged roads and bridges, and spur economic development. HUD will continue working with officials in Colorado to rebuild more resilient and better prepared for future storms."

“It has been almost ten months since the flood struck last fall, and our federal partners have provided extraordinary resources to help our state recover,” said Governor John Hickenlooper. “This third round of funding of CDBG-DR funds will help our communities grow stronger and more resilient as they recover over the long term. Families, businesses and local economies in disaster-impacted communities will never be made whole. But this funding will provide critical support for Colorado’s future.”

"The September 2013 flood and destructive government shutdown left Colorado hobbled. Since then I have been proud to work collaboratively with the U.S. Department Housing and Urban Development to ensure Colorado communities have the resources they need to rebuild and protect Coloradans and businesses from future floods," U.S. Senator Mark Udall said. "This latest allocation is welcome news for Colorado and underscores the critical role HUD has played and will continue to play in helping us to rebuild smarter and stronger."

“We knew we’d have a long road to recovery, and we’re making tremendous progress,” Senator Michael Bennet said. “These resources from HUD are particularly critical because they will us help continue to recover in a variety of ways, from repairing homes and businesses, to restoring local infrastructure, supporting the long term economic recovery of these communities, and mitigating future damage. We’ll continue to work with HUD and other federal agencies along with the state to ensure every community has what it needs to recover during this long process.”

A minimum of 80 percent of the funds awarded will be targeted in Boulder, Weld, and Larimer Counties where approximately 2,800 homes incurred major or severe damage.

The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013, signed into law by President Obama on January 29th, included $16 billion in CDBG-DR funding. The legislation specifies these funds are to be used "for necessary expenses related to disaster relief, long-term recovery, restoration of infrastructure and housing, and economic revitalization in the most impacted and distressed areas resulting from a major disaster."

HUD’s CDBG-DR grants are intended to confront housing, business and infrastructure needs beyond those addressed by other forms of public and private assistance. Using a combination of data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Small Business Administration (SBA), HUD identified particular counties in Colorado with the greatest extent of damage to housing, businesses and infrastructure.

HUD will shortly publish a Notice that will regulate the use of the funds announced today. The State of Colorado will then finalize disaster 'action plans' describing how it intends to expend these funds to support disaster recovery and HUD will quickly review them.

###

WASHINGTON, DC – U.S. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Secretary Shaun Donovan today announced the allocation of more than $31 million to the City of Chicago, Cook County, and DuPage County to help these communities recover from devastating storms, strong winds and flooding.  These grants are provided through HUD’s Community Development Block Grant-Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) Program to support long-term disaster recovery efforts in areas with the greatest extent of ‘unmet need.’

The City of Chicago will receive $11 million; Cook County will receive $14.8 million; and DuPage County will receive $5.6 million to support local recovery efforts following powerful storms and flooding that occurred from April 16 through May 5 of 2013. To date, HUD has allocated more than $188 million to support long-term disaster recovery in some of Illinois’ hardest-hit communities:

Grantee

Grants Announced Today

Previous Grants

Total

Chicago

$11,075,000

$52,000,000

$63,075,000

Cook County

$14,816,000

$68,800,000

$83,616,000

DuPage County

$5,626,000

$25,900,000

$31,526,000

State of Illinois

$10,400,000

$10,400,000

TOTAL

$31,517,000

$157,100,000

$188,617,000

“Since Illinois was struck by severe storms last year, HUD has worked closely with local officials to ensure they have the resources they need to help the hardest-hit communities recover,” said Donovan.  “HUD will continue working with state and local leaders as they rebuild homes and businesses to be more resilient and better prepared for future storms.”

The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013, signed into law by President Obama on January 29th, included $16 billion in CDBG-DR funding. The legislation specifies these funds are to be used "for necessary expenses related to disaster relief, long-term recovery, restoration of infrastructure and housing, and economic revitalization in the most impacted and distressed areas resulting from a major disaster."

HUD’s CDBG-DR grants are intended to confront housing, business and infrastructure needs beyond those addressed by other forms of public and private assistance. Using a combination of data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Small Business Administration (SBA), HUD identified particular counties in Colorado with the greatest extent of damage to housing, businesses and infrastructure.

HUD will shortly publish a Notice that will regulate the use of the funds announced today. The grantees will then finalize disaster 'action plans' describing how they intend to expend these funds to support disaster recovery and HUD will quickly review them.